Parahyaena brunnea (Thunberg, 1820)
Photo: Doug Lee
IUCN Conservation Status:
Lower Risk, near threatened (LR/nt).
Surveys by the Hyaena Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC in 2006
indicated a global population of between 5 000 and 8 000 of which
approximately 1 000 are in Namibia. Hunting and trading of brown hyaena
and its products are currently strictly forbidden by the international
legislation of CITES.
Early Dutch settlers in the Cape called it strandwolf, “beach wolf”,
because of its habit of strolling along the tidal zone of beaches in
search of food.
The taxonomy of the hayenas has changed several times and the relationship between the extant four species is still in dispute.
• Parahyaena brunnea the brown hyaena
• Crocuta crocuta the spotted hyaena
• Hyaena hyaena the striped hyaena
• Proteles cristatus the aardwolf of the subfamily Protelinae,
Fossilized remains indicate the existence of at least 24 hyaena
genera that were widely distributed across Eurasia and Africa during
the late Miocene epoch. These were divided into two consecutive, major
groups. The first group consisted of the small jackal-like hyaenas,
which were similar to the present mongooses and civets and had
rudimentary jaws and a poor dentition. The second group contained the
greater bone-cracking or hunting hyaenas, which developed jaws and
teeth for cracking open large bones such as bovine femurs. The hyaena
apparently diverged from the cats approximately 29 million years BP
during the Oligocene, somewhere in Eurasia, where they shared a common,
civet-like pre-ancestor. The Hyaenidae family developed to its full
extent during a moist, warm era that prevailed in most of Europe, Asia
and Africa during the early Miocene.
Only one hyaena genus Chasmaporthetes dispersed from Eurasia into North
America and none into South America or Australia. Several genera
migrated across the Gomphothere land-bridge into Africa in the late
Miocene. The genera Hyaena, Parahyaena and Crocuta evolved in Africa in
the late Pliocene, the brown hyaena originating in East Africa and
spreading to southern Africa. The striped hyaena diverged much later
than the brown hyaena and spread from East Africa into Asia where it is
still found today. The most widely distributed hyaena at present, the
large spotted hyaena, is the youngest member. It developed 9 000 years
BP from its ancestor Crocuta ultra that evolved in Africa approximately
3.5 million years BP. C. ultra spread to Europe and Asia and gave rise
to the cave hyaena C. spelaea that became extinct in the late
A typical Hyaenid profile
of high shoulders and a sloping back. It is third tallest of the four
extant hyaena species, the smallest being the aardwolf. The head, neck
and shoulders are large in relation to the rest of the body. The body
is entirely covered with exceptionally long hair of 12-17 cm; unevenly
dark brown, with yellowish-brown to cream-white shades over the
shoulders and neck. The upper legs are horizontally striped in
cream-yellow, and the tail, muzzle and ear tips are black. The large
ears are 14 cm long, are pointed and almost always upright. Adult body
mass is reached at 30-35 months and maximum body size at 40-72 months,
after which time the body size begins to reduce with age.
Comparison To Man
The brown hyaena is protected by CITES and is therefore not recognized as a trophy animal in official trophy registers.
The brown hyaena prefers
beaches and the vicinity of inland rivers and smaller drainage lines.
It is not associated with a particular vegetation type, but rather with
arid and semi-arid regions with a mean annual rainfall of between
80-300 mm. Solitary nomads may be found in highveld grasslands with an
annual rainfall of up to 650 mm; higher rainfall areas are avoided.
Common landscape habitats include desert, the Kalahari, dry savannah
and both sweet and mixed, temperate grasslands with sparse low shrubs.
It is independent of surface drinking water.
Feeding & Nutrition
Brown hyaenas are
predominantly active at night when clan members split up to hunt and
scavenge alone. They take refuge during daytime under thicket, in
underground holes, in tall grass patches, under debris or between large
rocks. When food is limited they become increasingly more active during
the day. It is predominantly a scavenger, especially of rotten flesh.
They rarely hunt prey such as hares, foxes, game birds and lambs of
small antelope. The success rate of hunts is only 4-6% and hunted kills
account for 4% of the consumed diet. It moves 30-55 km per night and up
to 40 km from its den. Wild fruits and fleshy bulbs are also consumed
but mainly for the moisture content, vitamins and minerals. For
example, 22 tsammas provide an equal energy of 1 kg of meat. Other
dietary components include insects, small birds, rodents, reptiles,
ostrich eggs and seal carcasses that are washed up on the shore line.
Brown hyaena can consume up to 8 kg of flesh at one time, while the
daily intake is estimated at 1.5-3 kg. Pieces of meat and bones are
carried away and hidden for later consumption. The total diet consists
of 40% vegetative material, 56% carrion and 2.5-4% prey.
A gregarious, socialized
animal that becomes temporarily solitary when searching for food.
Social clans vary from 4-18 individuals and comprise of adult females,
adult residential males, sub-adults of both genders and cubs, all
sharing the same communal den and home range. A clan has several dens
in the home range and alternates between dens every 3.6 months. Some
sub-adult males leave the clan and become non-residential, solitary
nomads. The most dominant female becomes the alpha female that breeds
with an external alpha male residing temporarily with the clan. Clan
members meet frequently while roaming and hunting, and display a
complex greeting ritual named as “necking“. Nomad alpha males dominate
the residential beta males of a clan briefly while they are resident.
Several brown hyaenas from different clans may tolerate each other at
large carcasses, especially close to the home range boundaries. Home
range sizes are not static and vary with changes in food abundance.
Overlapping between an adjacent clan’s home range is <20%. Solitary
nomads do not have fixed ranges and can cover distances of up to 2 000
km in as little as 3 months.
The alpha-females of >2.5 years, do not mate with the adult
residential beta-males of <3 years in the clan. A nomad alpha-male
of >5 years drifting between clans picks up the scent of an
ovulating female at a considerable distance, as well as her pasted
scent markings. He only copulates with an alpha female and then stays
in the clan for an undetermined period. Peripheral immigrant beta-males
of 2-5 years might mate with beta-females but their offspring is
inferior to that of the alpha-pair and they have a limited survival
potential. Sub-adult females assist in the nurturing of the adult
female’s pups and carry food items back to the den for the young.
Sub-adult males and some sub-adult females leave the clan at an age of
18-22 months to join other clans or to establish a new clan.
|Brown Hyaena information table
|Adult body weight
|Adult shoulder height
|Total body length (snout to tail)
|Age of sexual maturity
|Age of social adulthood (1st mating)
|1st litter born at
|Independent at age
|Gender ratio: Natural (all ages)
|Mating ratio: Natural (adults)
Absolute minimum number needed
Smallest viable population size
|Gregarious groups (clans)
|Spatial behaviour: Home range
unlimited (>2 000)
|Spatial behaviour: Territory range
|Daily food consumption (adults)
|Maximum stocking load
|Determined by prey animal abundance
|Minimum habitat size required
|Annual population growth
|Optimal annual rainfall
|Optimal vegetation structure:
Woody canopy cover:
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